Pae Tata, Pae Tawhiti provides a framework that recognises the importance of enhancing mana and mauri; identifies concerns and needs in relation to substance use and mental health concerns; and enables the development of the first steps of huanui oranga. From a Māori perspective, concerns and issues are broadly explored and debated, rather than boxed into separate units to inspect. The framework is designed to be applied within early targeted inteventions, and diverges from standard brief intervention models that target presenting risks in a time-limited manner. Pae Tata, Pae Tawhiti acknowledges the need to address the prevalence of inequities in presenting co-existing drug and alcohol and mental health concerns for Māori compared to non-Māori.
Tū māia represents a place and space where we take on the āhuatanga (characteristics) of our tūpuna, which are ours through whakapapa. Tū means to stand (Williams, 2010), and it is the shortened name for Tūmatauenga, who is the deity of warfare and humankind (Paki, 2017). Māia means brave, bold, and capable (Williams, 2010). These āhuatanga carry with them insights, roles, and responsibilities for participants to draw from. Using ancestral knowledge as lessons for current and future actions provides a source of strength and integrity that is in unity with those around them.
Within the Pae Tata, Pae Tawhiti framework, Tū māia, along with several other Tawhiti principles, is underpinned by recognising and respecting the mana of the person you are working with, and their journey (including their whānau) thus far. This involves acknowledging and addressing the spiritual (wairuatanga), the psychological/emotional (hinengaro), and the physical (tinana) dimensions of a person (Royal, 2006). Mana-enhancing and mana-maintaining practices are built on a foundation of a therapeutic relationship that reinforces whānau as the solution finders, decision makers, and holders of responsibility for their independent choices. This also aligns closely with an aspect of a whānau-centred Motivational Interviewing (MI) approach (Britt et al., 2014).
- Draw up a genogram.
- Utilise the Whai Tikanga Cards to identify values.
- Explore their pūrākau, their journey.
- Identify past experiences of achievements and overcoming challenges.
- Explore their pepeha, and their connection and experience with each aspect.
Aroha is a word that is commonly translated as a noun meaning affection, sympathy, charity, compassion, love, empathy (Moorfield, 2011) and as a verb, to love, feel pity, feel concern for, feel compassion, empathise (Moorfield, 2011). Each of these meanings sit within a context that enables whānau to reflect upon what it is that aroha means to them. Within a Māori worldview, aroha can be described as:
Aro: to attend to; to favour, and metaphysically (beyond the practice or profession of medicine) to keep in the forefront of our mind; and
Hā: the breath and the spirit of the communications.
Aroha brings together the spirit (the character) of communication and actions between people (Paki, 2017) that, when working well, develops, maintains, and supports the integrity and balance of a relationship.
Within the Pae Tata, Pae Tawhiti framework, aroha encourages practitioners to understand the lived experiences of participants and their whānau and to be able to express empathy for these. It also involves teaching participants to understand and express empathy for the challenges ahead of them. This could include activities or important aspects of their lives that they may need to sacrifice and let go. Aroha, alongside a mana-enhancing approach, demonstrates warmth and genuineness in interactions with whānau.
- Explore the journey. Have they tried to cut down before? Have they attempted to manage their mental health concerns? What happened/got in the way? What might they have to change, lose, or address to make changes?
- Develop a shared reo for kare ā-roto, their meaning and purpose as signals for action (emotional literacy).
- Use reflection to explore emotions.
- Use mindfulness exercises to locate emotions in the tinana.
- Explore increasing tolerance for uncomfortable emotions.
- Develop strategies for responding to strong emotions.
Whanaungatanga has been described variously as relationship, kinship, and as a sense of familial connection (Barlow et al., 1995). Unlike the western idea of the nuclear family, within a Māori worldview, family can extend to those who are
closely connected to you by genealogy, and those who are remotely related. More modern perspectives of whānau include kaupapa whānau to refer to those who share a common interest or group membership (for example, church, sports, or school). Whanaungatanga refers to connecting to shared experiences and working together to create a sense of belonging that is more than just a relational alliance:
Whanaungatanga, to me, is going through a process of there being distance and then coming closer together … connecting as Māori … So, it’s about my tūpuna … it’s about feeling the other person’s wairua, their mauri, their energy … it’s about being formal [and] informal. (Mooney, 2010, p. 50).
It is also noted that Whanaungatanga is based on whānau, whakapapa, manaakitanga (supportiveness), reciprocity, friendship, and quality time, and that it is developed through exploration of shared interests and consistency of care (Carlson et al., 2016). Whanaungatanga can also be seen as a critical component of mana-enhancing practice:
Key elements of this relationship are the authenticity of the practitioner who adheres to the principles of respect, integrity and dignity in their approach with the person and their whānau. Successful helper relationships begin with an understanding of a person’s position within their whānau, family and community, and of their whānau connections both historical and current. (Huriwai & Baker, 2016, p. 6).
Within the Pae Tata, Pae Tawhiti framework, Whanaungatanga reinforces the need for practitioners to engage with whānau networks to better understand the context, needs, and available supports to healing pathways for the person and their whānau. This also means identifying where bonds need to be reaffirmed or healed. Whanaungatanga encourages us to firstly make connections through
whakapapa, interests, and/or whenua. Secondly, it clarifies boundaries, roles, and responsibility within relationships. Finally, it enables us to utilise counselling skills, such as immediacy, to identify and respond to interpersonal issues and develop
a helpful connection. As the concepts of Whanaungatanga suggest, whānau are empowered to participate and lead their own change journeys
- Draw a genogram showing whānau and
- Utilise Whai Tikanga Values Cards to identify whānau values.
- Explore their pakiwaitara, life
- Identify whānau past experiences of achievements and overcoming
- Complete He Puna Whakaata Korurangi exercise
- Complete the Hua Oranga
The term Huritao (also known as noho puku or wānanga) can be understood by huri (to turn around) and tao (to weigh down; to balance, as in a waka) (Moorfield, 2011). Used in this framework, Huritao refers to the importance of reflecting on an issue with a balance perspective. The importance of reflection within the healing process is evident within the central stages of Whakapuaki and Whakatangi within the Pōwhiri Poutama Model; and balancing (alignment, whakapai) and Whakamāramatanga within the Ngā Tohu o te Ora framework.
Wānanga is an important concept and process that can stimulate and guide Huritao. When used as a verb, to wānanga, is to deliberate, consider, and discuss a proposition or issue/take. Iwi, hapū, and whānau discuss and debate knowledge, lore and law, and other important information to decide on a course of action.
The wānanga process occurs with the participant and their whānau, as well as in sessions. This process is important so that the participant has the opportunity to discover the roots of some of the issues and perspectives/take that have separated them from their values and principles, and from each other.
Within the Pae Tata, Pae Tawhiti framework, Huritao encourages kaimahi to facilitate wānanga, a process where the person, their whānau, and support workers, can develop a shared understanding. In relation to a mana-enhancing, harm reduction approach, this would incorporate eliciting (drawing forward) reflection on the harms being experienced in relation to the person’s substance use; their challenges in making change; and their motivation and commitment towards their tūmanako (aspirations).
- Utilise Te Whare Tapa Whā model to identify impacts. How has mental health (i.e. depression, pōuri) or substance use impacted on Taha Whānau, Taha Wairua, Taha Hinengaro, and Taha Tinana?
- Apply ngā pūkenga akoako (counselling skills) such as concreteness (specific, definite, and vivid) to focus on experiences, harms, and concerns; and OARS skills
- Apply MI skills that elicit incongruence (conflict/difference) between ngā uara (values), goals, and behavior.
- Utilise MI importance, confidence, and readiness rulers (see page 86).
- Use the Hua Oranga
The Session Rating Scale (SRS) at the end of each session to assist whānau in rating their relationships, goals, and topics, approaches or methods, and to arrive at an overall SRS is a simple, four-item visual analogue (something that is similar or comparable to something else) scale designed to assess key dimensions of effective healing relationships.
Reflection can also take place at the end of sessions, or after a number of sessions regarding the healing process, and actions towards goals and The following tools can be useful in:
Ināianei is often used to define now or presently (Moorfield, 2011). The whakataukī “Kia whakatōmuri te haere whakamua” has been translated as “I walk backwards into the future with my eyes fixed on my past” (Rameka, 2006). This refers to
the importance of knowing, acknowledging, and building upon past knowledge and relationships to utilise the wisdom inherent within these, for achieving Māori aspirations (McLachlan et al., 2019). While the western worldview sees time as lineal, a Māori worldview acknowledges that we see and feel time as cyclic, with
time that has passed also standing in front of us. Takirirangi Smith (2000) identifies that, when engaging with oral traditions, time and space are linked together, and the past is always accessible and near. The lessons from our whakapapa, our experience, and what we see before us are used to deal with those issues, so they do not emerge in the unseen future.
Within the Pae Tata, Pae Tawhiti framework, Ināianei encourages practitioners to focus on breaking down complex problems into some first steps, including moving them from their current place to safer options in a step-by-step manner. We learn from the past as we move forward and address concerns of safety and stability.
This includes practical goal setting to decrease risks, increase wellbeing, and, where necessary, gather close to our supports.
- Wānanga on lessons from tūpuna held within pūrākau on identifying and addressing personal and collective
- Utilise Te Whare Tapa Whā to identify what areas are experiencing harm and what can be done to strengthen these areas.
- Work together to develop a menu of options (ways of decreasing potential harm).
- Review the material in section identifying risks and healthy ways to respond.
- Provide harm reduction handouts associated with the different drugs being used (see NZ Drug Foundation brief advice cards).
The foundational notion of the word Tautoko means “to prop up and support”, and “keep at a distance” (Williams, 2010, p. 404). The word is also a reminder of the role that was played by certain entities in the beginnings. When the heavy weight of Ranginui caused the toko (poles) used to separate the primal parents to bow, extra supports were required to hold him in place. In terms of the kaupapa here, these extra supports are those people, services, and/or whānau who, after all else has been used, see the bowing of the toko and come in to assist with the lifting of the heaviness off those under stress. Together they gain the strength to set things in their rightful place. Although some may argue that Ranginui should have remained with his wife, the suffering caused in part by the selfishness of those primals (Te Piringatahi) and the exposure to what could be (Te Whai Ao), was enough to warrant the separation of the pair, and the development of new learnings (Te Ao Mārama).
Within the Pae Tata, Pae Tawhiti framework, Tautoko encourages practitioners to consider issues of equity, access, and advocacy. Effort must be put into identifying the internal resources of the whānau – ngā pūkenga (skills), ngā uara me ngā mātāpono within themselves – that they can draw on to assist in their journey.
Similarly, the external resources of the whānau – which are practical supports that the person and their whānau need or can draw upon – can also assist in their healing journey.
Tautoko also reminds practitioners about boundaries and Tū māia, to not overstep the abilities and priorities of the whānau. Clear communication, case management practices, collaboration with whānau, support networks, and services are key to effective support.
- Share creation pūrākau, and explore what values, principles and actions they see, can relate to and could apply in their own life.
- Apply strengths-based questions to identify past successes and what contributed to these.
- Utilise problem solving and decision.
- Utilise the He Puna Whakaata Korurangi exercise to identify support-people.
- Create an action plan template that highlights, for all parties, the support systems that are in place, including contact details.
Ihi has been described as a sunbeam or ray of light (noun) or essential force, excitement, thrill or power (Moorfield, 2011). Following on from the kaupapa of Tautoko and the origin story of the orokohanga, ihi can then be seen as bringing in light or māramatanga. Many notions of ihi have a translation of shuddering
or trembling, often from fear and trepidation. However, it also translates as a trembling of excitement and joy as the person feels the ihi, with the hairs on the back of their necks rising and their hearts beating hard in their chests. They are having a physical reaction to the psychic powers of anticipation and for those moments are ‘plugging in’ to that which binds us together. An example is
Te Matatini, a Māori performing arts festival and competition, where performers will experience the spirit of their ancestors. Other examples are the experiences of people who sense a feeling beyond natural explanations.
It is the beginning of the opening of the door to a new/old consciousness that is being led by our tūpuna, and again with the interconnected wefts of the other sections, i.e. Tū māia, Aroha, Whanaungatanga, Huritao, Ināianei, and Tautoko, they become connected to that which gives meaning as whole.
Within the Pae Tata, Pae Tawhiti framework, ihi encourages practitioners to explore Māori pathways to wellbeing, looking beyond problems to solutions and mana- enhancing practices. Ihi incorporates the reflection of experiences, learning about new or untapped pathways in the person’s communities, and also the importance of practitioners, community leaders, and whānau in guiding encounters. It is important that the person is not made to feel whakamā in learning about and engaging in te ao Māori, as this is counterproductive to achieving oranga.
- Discuss where the person draws their strength.
- Ask whether they have whānau, hapū, and iwi kōrero pūrākau/whakapapa to draw hope, motivation, or strategies for overcoming challenges.
- Utilise the Whiti te Rā worksheets, exploring pathways to wellbeing, ngā hua (benefits) of these pathways and creating poutama to access these pathways.
- Wānanga on their experience of engaging in te ao Māori, and that of their whānau whānui.