Pae Tata, Pae Tawhiti

Pae Tata, Pae Tawhiti provides a framework that recognises the importance of enhancing mana and mauri; identifies concerns and needs in relation to substance use and mental health concerns; and enables the development of the first steps of huanui oranga. From a Māori perspective, concerns and issues are broadly explored and debated, rather than boxed into separate units to inspect. The framework is designed to be applied within early targeted inteventions, and diverges from standard brief intervention models that target presenting risks in a time-limited manner. Pae Tata, Pae Tawhiti acknowledges the need to address the prevalence of inequities in presenting co-existing drug and alcohol and mental health concerns for Māori compared to non-Māori.


Within the Pae Tata, Pae Tawhiti framework, Tū māia, along with several other Tawhiti principles, is underpinned by recognising and respecting the mana of the person you are working with, and their journey (including their whānau) thus far. This involves acknowledging and addressing the spiritual (wairuatanga), the psychological/emotional (hinengaro), and the physical (tinana) dimensions of a person (Royal, 2006). Mana-enhancing and mana-maintaining practices are built on a foundation of a therapeutic relationship that reinforces whānau as the solution finders, decision makers, and holders of responsibility for their independent choices. This also aligns closely with an aspect of a whānau-centred Motivational Interviewing (MI) approach (Britt et al., 2014).

  • Draw up a genogram.
  • Utilise the Whai Tikanga Cards to identify values.
  • Explore their pūrākau, their journey.
  • Identify past experiences of achievements and overcoming challenges.
  • Explore their pepeha, and their connection and experience with each aspect.


Within the Pae Tata, Pae Tawhiti framework, aroha encourages practitioners to understand the lived experiences of participants and their whānau and to be able to express empathy for these. It also involves teaching participants to understand and express empathy for the challenges ahead of them. This could include activities or important aspects of their lives that they may need to sacrifice and let go. Aroha, alongside a mana-enhancing approach, demonstrates warmth and genuineness in interactions with whānau.

  • Explore the journey. Have they tried to cut down before? Have they attempted to manage their mental health concerns? What happened/got in the way? What might they have to change, lose, or address to make changes?
  • Develop a shared reo for kare ā-roto, their meaning and purpose as signals for action (emotional literacy).
  • Use reflection to explore emotions.
  • Use mindfulness exercises to locate emotions in the tinana.
  • Explore increasing tolerance for uncomfortable emotions.
  • Develop strategies for responding to strong emotions.


Within the Pae Tata, Pae Tawhiti framework, Whanaungatanga reinforces the need for practitioners to engage with whānau networks to better understand the context, needs, and available supports to healing pathways for the person and their whānau. This also means identifying where bonds need to be reaffirmed or healed. Whanaungatanga encourages us to firstly make connections through

whakapapa, interests, and/or whenua. Secondly, it clarifies boundaries, roles, and responsibility within relationships. Finally, it enables us to utilise counselling skills, such as immediacy, to identify and respond to interpersonal issues and develop

a helpful connection. As the concepts of Whanaungatanga suggest, whānau are empowered to participate and lead their own change journeys

  • Draw a genogram showing whānau and
  • Utilise Whai Tikanga Values Cards to identify whānau values.
  • Explore their pakiwaitara, life
  • Identify whānau past experiences of achievements and overcoming
  • Complete He Puna Whakaata Korurangi exercise
  • Complete the Hua Oranga


Within the Pae Tata, Pae Tawhiti framework, Huritao encourages kaimahi to facilitate wānanga, a process where the person, their whānau, and support workers, can develop a shared understanding. In relation to a mana-enhancing, harm reduction approach, this would incorporate eliciting (drawing forward) reflection on the harms being experienced in relation to the person’s substance use; their challenges in making change; and their motivation and commitment towards their tūmanako (aspirations).

        • Utilise Te Whare Tapa Whā model to identify impacts. How has mental health (i.e. depression, pōuri) or substance use impacted on Taha Whānau, Taha Wairua, Taha Hinengaro, and Taha Tinana?
        • Apply ngā pūkenga akoako (counselling skills) such as concreteness (specific, definite, and vivid) to focus on experiences, harms, and concerns; and OARS skills
        • Apply MI skills that elicit incongruence (conflict/difference) between ngā uara (values), goals, and behavior.
        • Utilise MI importance, confidence, and readiness rulers (see page 86).
        • Use the Hua Oranga

The Session Rating Scale (SRS) at the end of each session to assist whānau in rating their relationships, goals, and topics, approaches or methods, and to arrive at an overall SRS is a simple, four-item visual analogue (something that is similar or comparable to something else) scale designed to assess key dimensions of effective healing relationships.


Session Scale Rating

Whare Tapa Whā

Reflection can also take place at the end of sessions, or after a number of sessions regarding the healing process, and actions towards goals and The following tools can be useful in:


Within the Pae Tata, Pae Tawhiti framework, Ināianei encourages practitioners to focus on breaking down complex problems into some first steps, including moving them from their current place to safer options in a step-by-step manner. We learn from the past as we move forward and address concerns of safety and stability.

This includes practical goal setting to decrease risks, increase wellbeing, and, where necessary, gather close to our supports.

  • Wānanga on lessons from tūpuna held within pūrākau on identifying and addressing personal and collective
  • Utilise Te Whare Tapa Whā to identify what areas are experiencing harm and what can be done to strengthen these areas.
  • Work together to develop a menu of options (ways of decreasing potential harm).
  • Review the material in section identifying risks and healthy ways to respond.
  • Provide harm reduction handouts associated with the different drugs being used (see NZ Drug Foundation brief advice cards).


Whare Tapa Whā


Within the Pae Tata, Pae Tawhiti framework, Tautoko encourages practitioners to consider issues of equity, access, and advocacy. Effort must be put into identifying the internal resources of the whānau – ngā pūkenga (skills), ngā uara me ngā mātāpono within themselves – that they can draw on to assist in their journey.

Similarly, the external resources of the whānau – which are practical supports that the person and their whānau need or can draw upon – can also assist in their healing journey.

Tautoko also reminds practitioners about boundaries and Tū māia, to not overstep the abilities and priorities of the whānau. Clear communication, case management practices, collaboration with whānau, support networks, and services are key to effective support.

  • Share creation pūrākau, and explore what values, principles and actions they see, can relate to and could apply in their own life.
  • Apply strengths-based questions to identify past successes and what contributed to these.
  • Utilise problem solving and decision.
  • Utilise the He Puna Whakaata Korurangi exercise to identify support-people.
  • Create an action plan template that highlights, for all parties, the support systems that are in place, including contact details.


Within the Pae Tata, Pae Tawhiti framework, ihi encourages practitioners to explore Māori pathways to wellbeing, looking beyond problems to solutions and mana- enhancing practices. Ihi incorporates the reflection of experiences, learning about new or untapped pathways in the person’s communities, and also the importance of practitioners, community leaders, and whānau in guiding encounters. It is important that the person is not made to feel whakamā in learning about and engaging in te ao Māori, as this is counterproductive to achieving oranga.

  • Discuss where the person draws their strength.
  • Ask whether they have whānau, hapū, and iwi kōrero pūrākau/whakapapa to draw hope, motivation, or strategies for overcoming challenges.
  • Utilise the Whiti te Rā worksheets, exploring pathways to wellbeing, ngā hua (benefits) of these pathways and creating poutama to access these pathways.
  • Wānanga on their experience of engaging in te ao Māori, and that of their whānau whānui.